What is Myopia? Symptoms and Correction
Myopia is also known as shortsightedness is a common eye condition that causes objects at a distance to appear blurred and objects nearby to appear clear. This condition affects an estimated 25% of Americans. Myopia is the most common eye problem estimated to be affecting about 1.5 billion people in the world.
Types of Myopia
Multiple kinds of myopia exist. These are described in more detail in the sections below.
- Simple myopia – The eye is otherwise healthy in simple myopia. Using glasses or contact lenses can easily fix a person’s vision problems.
- High myopia – The more severe form of myopia is high myopia. It happens when someone develops nearsightedness when they get older. The risk of developing some additional eye conditions, including retinal detachment, glaucoma, or cataracts, may be increased through high myopia.
- Pathological myopia – Myopia will also be experienced in people with pathologic or degenerative eye conditions.
The eye also will have problems affecting the retina, like
- Lattice degeneration, which is a type of retinal thinning.
- Retinal atrophy, wherein parts of the retina have wasted and do not work.
- Forster-Fuchs’ spot, which is a type of scarring on the retina that can lead to blind spots.
Pathological myopia may also lead to loss of vision which cannot be corrected by lenses or lenses.
What Causes Myopia?
Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long, so it impacts how the cornea and lens focus. Myopia commonly runs in families, so you are likely to develop it if both sides of your family are shortsighted. Instead of directly focusing on the retina, images focus on the light-sensible part of your eye. This causes blurred vision.
What causes the eyeball to grow longer in particular is currently unknown, but other factors that may cause myopia do occur. For instance, you can also see how long you’re spending outside and indoors. If the time you spend reading, writing or writing on your computer is disproportionate, it can trigger myopia.
What Are the Symptoms of Myopia?
- Blurry vision when looking at distant objects.
- This is the most common symptom of myopia.
- The need to squint or partially close the eyelids to see clearly.
- If you are having trouble reading and seeing distant objects clearly and find yourself squinting to see better, you may have myopia.
- Headaches caused by eyestrain.
- Blink excessively, Rub his or her eyes frequently.
- Difficulty seeing while driving a vehicle, especially at night (night myopia)
- Children with myopia often find it difficult to read the school blackboard.
What Are the Risk Factors?
- Visual Stress – This includes eye strain from doing detailed work like working on a computer.
- Changing eye shape – Myopia is often diagnosed between the age of 8 and 12. Your eyes are growing at this time so the shape of your eyes can change.
- Health conditions – Adults who have underlying health conditions like diabetes are likely to be diagnosed with myopia.
- Genetics – Myopia may run in families. If one of your parents has shortsightedness your chances of having myopia increases.
How Is Myopia Treated?
There are some effective methods of myopia control for children with progressive nearsightedness, including
- Atropine eye lenses
- Myopia control lenses
- Myopia control
- Orthopia contact lenses
For others, nearsightedness can be corrected with standard prescription eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.
You may have to wear glasses or contact lenses always, or just when you need a clear distance view, such as drive, watch a crawl board or movie, depending on the degree of your myopia.
PRK Eye Surgery
Photorefractive keratectomy is performed with a laser. The laser is used to remove a layer of corneal tissue that flattens the cornea and allows light rays to focus closer to the retina and even on it.
LASIK Eye Surgery
Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis is commonly known as LASIK. Here a laser is used to cut a flap through the top of the cornea. The laser removes some corneal tissue and the flap is dropped back to its place. LASIK eye surgery for myopia is the most common corrective surgery of all these surgeries.
Plastic corneal rings also known as Intacs, are implanted in the eye to change the shape of the cornea. These rings can be left in place permanently and need to be adjusted only in case of a change in prescription.
Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses or Refractive Surgery
While you can’t prevent shortsightedness there are some things you can do to slow down its development. Here are some of them:
- Get your vision checked regularly.
- Wear myopia correction lenses as prescribed by your doctor.
- Use sunglasses with UV radiation protection.
- Take breaks from detailed work like using the computer for long hours.
- Manage chronic health conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure.
- Eat a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids.
Apart from these, take good care of your eyes and visit an eye doctor in case you notice any changes in your vision.
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