Macular degeneration is an eye disease that leads to central vision deterioration. The central vision is basically what you see when you are looking straight ahead. There are two forms of macular degeneration: dry and wet macular deformation.
Dry maculopathy happens when the myriads of tiny crystalline proteins in the macula get piled up in the macula. This condition may have been caused by an inherited condition like Leber congenital amaurosis.
This accumulation eventually results in a condition known as dry maculopathy. Dry maculopathy has no specific cause, but it is usually hereditary and caused by the accumulation of excessive protein in the blood vessels in the retina.
This protein accumulation can be caused by a lot of factors, including exposure to radiation, sun, and tobacco smoke. If you experience dry maculopathy, the only way to stop it is to undergo surgery. Wet maculopathy occurs when there is too much protein accumulated in the macula.
This is called wet maculopathy because it is due to the accumulation of excess protein in the blood vessels
Unlike dry maculopathy, wet maculopathy has a definite cause. It can be caused by exposure to UV rays from the sun, genetic conditions like Leber congenital amaurosis, or heredity. Wet maculopathy can be treated in a variety of ways depending on the underlying cause of wet maculopathy.
For example, the fluid from the eyes will be drained, which in turn reduces protein accumulation in the macula. Macular pigment cells are small crystalline proteins that give your central vision its colour. Macular pigment cells are constantly made inside the macula.
If the protein molecules do not get released from the macula, macular pigment cells will start to build up. As macula degenerates, the crystalline proteins are slowly but surely accumulated in the macula, causing dry maculopathy.
This condition is also called dry Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)
In this condition, treatment options include surgery and laser treatment. In addition to these two different maculopathy treatment, there are other options to consider, such as surgery. for wet maculopathy and photodynamic therapy, which uses lasers to remove the protein buildup from the macula.
However, most people choose surgery only after consulting their ophthalmologist. A surgeon removes the macula by cutting it open with a scalpel. The surgeon then replaces the macula by grafting new blood vessels into it, restoring vision in the area.
In laser treatment, the macula is exposed to a special laser, which excises the macula through a small incision. Then the surgeon uses an electrical laser to burn the macula and replace it with a new one. There are two types of laser treatment available for macular degeneration:
- Pulsed dye laser therapy
- Laser keratomileusis (LASIK)
Both methods are quite similar in their efficiency, but they do require more time and cost
Lasers are also used to treat dry maculopathy. Lasers are used to destroy the macula by burning it or by destroying the crystalline protein that accumulated in the macula. They use energy in the form of photons to kill the protein, which eventually leads to the breakdown of the macula.
Once the manual is gone, the disease is gone permanently. The procedure for wet maculopathy is much the same; only the lasers are used. For some people, wet maculopathy is not a viable option, because the manual has already been damaged. For others, the procedure to replace the manual may cause irreversible damage.
In the case of dry ARMD, however, surgery is often the best option for treating the condition. Laser therapy and surgery have proven effective in preventing the progression of the disease and treating its symptoms, while surgical procedures are also considered a last resort.
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