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The Principle and Research of Epidemiology

Epidemiology is a branch of research dedicated to understanding the causes and prevention of diseases. It is usually associated with public health because it studies disease patterns and their impact on population, population and its environment.

The term Epidemiology has many different meanings but one thing is clear, it applies to epidemiology in the strictest sense of the word and not to the common definitions that people use when referring to it.

In epidemiology, the study of the effects of environmental factors on health, biological plausibility is the main concern. Scientists determine the causal factors behind illnesses by studying the association between the disease and the environment.

Although epidemiological observations were made before the advent of the scientific method and scientific investigation, their application in medical practice was limited. Since the scientific approach of studying this field makes use of other sciences including

  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Anatomy
  • Psychology
  • Sociology, etc.,

The understanding of epidemiology had a much broader scope

Epidemiology

In the earlier days, epidemiology was used to control the diseases which were causing immense social and economic losses and had resulted in the death of thousands of people. These diseases were considered as

  • Pestilence
  • Epidemic
  • An epidemic of measles
  • Cholera, etc.

These epidemics caused great destruction to the life of the people. The methods employed in the study of epidemics were methodical in nature, relying on scientific methodology for obtaining knowledge on the development of various diseases. They usually relied on surveys, clinical and laboratory studies, epidemiological investigations, investigations of environmental hazards, etc.

As a part of the general principles of treating the diseases, diseases could be cured through general principles and not solely through the specific causative agents used. Since the disease can cause a wide range of symptoms, the causative agents can be totally different in different instances.

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At the same time, the symptoms of the diseases can be very similar in any particular case. Therefore, to reduce confusion and avoid wasting time and effort, they make use of the same causative agent for all the cases.

The study of epidemiology was used to detect the different causes of different types of infections and also to determine whether or not there is any specific treatment that can cure the disease. It was observed that this procedure helps the physicians in diagnosing the underlying pathology of the disease.

The general principles of the study of epidemiology were applied in the treatment of some types of illness. Most of the infections can be cured by applying the principles of general principles of epidemiology since the underlying pathologies are not different from one another.

In the same way, drugs that cure the diseases are not so specific that it only cures the underlying pathology of the disease. Therefore, the real object of the use of general principles in the treatment of infectious diseases is to determine the causative agents responsible for the infection.

In this respect, the study of epidemiology was applied to understand whether or not the methods of therapy used for some forms of cancer, like breast cancer, have any relevance with regard to the body organ that is affected by the disease. Several studies using this approach have found that the risk of metastasis is related to the intensity of therapy used in treating breast cancer.

The theories of epidemiology in the study of epidemics can be found in the present time, being applied in various fields. They also act as a foundation for understanding the relationship between the many diseases.

The scientific foundation for the theory of epidemiology, being strong, has served for treating different types of illnesses and diseases. Most of the diseases, although more serious in their nature, can be cured and even prevented through the use of the principles of this study.

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The branches associated with Epidemiology

Epidemiologists try to understand the effects of diseases on different groups, identify the influence of environment on diseases and try to find ways to control them. Epidemiologists can include scientists, technicians, epidemiologists, epidemiological, social scientists and epidemiologists.

Sometimes epidemiologists are referred to as health indicators who monitor the health of a specific area or country. The health indicator is most commonly referred to by this term because most epidemiologists work for a government agency that is responsible for implementing health policies and activities in the society.

There are several areas wherein epidemiologists might work. These are

  • Public health
  • Pathophysiology
  • Environmental public health
  • Climatology
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Public health education
  • Public health epidemiology
  • Medical and public health education

Public health is concerned with protecting the health of the general public from disease. Epidemiologists work on preventive measures in order to reduce the chances of disease occurrence. The eradication of the disease is usually achieved through changing existing social and economic conditions

Epidemiologists try to identify the causes of outbreaks of illness that may be passed from one group to another. They study outbreaks of illness and come up with theories and principles that can be used to prevent future outbreaks.

Pathophysiology studies diseases by how they affect various organs or systems. These can be divided into two main categories, i.e.,

Pathophysiologic and
Pathogenic.

The pathophysiologic are those that directly affect organs and tissues, while the pathogenic are those that indirectly affect organs.

Epidemiologists work with researchers in different fields such as

  • Environmental public health
  • Public health education
  • Public health microbiology
  • Clinical microbiology
  • Infectious disease epidemiology
  • Ecology
  • Public health management
  • Epidemiology
  • Public health administration
  • Epidemiology education
  • Public health practice
  • Epidemiologic investigation
  • Epidemiologic research
  • Public health practice research, etc.

A full-time epidemiologist usually works on a full-time basis, which can sometimes be very exhausting.

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Environmental public health is a study of how different conditions affect human health and how these conditions affect the environment. The epidemiologist works with researchers from different fields and undertakes studies related to these conditions and their effect on human health and the environment.

Pathophysiology studies diseases by how they affect different organs or systems. These can be divided into two main categories, i.e., pathophysiologic and pathogenic. The pathophysiologic are those that directly affect organs and tissues, while the pathogenic are those that indirectly affect organs.

Epidemiologists are usually involved in designing and evaluating strategies that may be adopted to improve the condition of the population and to minimize the risk of acquiring diseases. They also work with researchers and conduct research on various diseases and research methods to find ways to prevent future outbreaks.

Epidemiologists try to identify the effects of diseases on different groups, identify the influence of environment on diseases and try to find ways to control them. Epidemiologists can include

  • Scientists
  • Technicians
  • Social scientists and
  • Sometimes epidemiologists are referred to as health indicators who monitor the health of a specific area or country.

Epidemiology may be a field that is always evolving and requiring new ways to measure the effects of disease on people. However, it is important to remember that understanding how to prevent the disease is not limited to being able to predict or prevent the next outbreak of a disease.

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