How to Treat Pyelonephritis: Kidney Infection
Acute pyelonephritis is a systemic infection resulting in inflammation of your kidneys and thus leading to a decrease in urine output. Other common pyelonephritis diseases are Chlamydia and gonorrhoea. It can affect infants as well.
The diagnosis usually rests on a complete history, which is cross-checked by performing a series of tests. In acute pyelonephritis, there may be no symptom at all. But if there are any, they are very mild and often do not produce any symptoms at all.
These patients are usually treated aggressively in the early stages so that their kidneys are saved. In most cases, these patients have a positive urine test for bacteria – Klepto Sporidium or Enterocolitis. But, in a few patients, particularly those with severe and recurrent inflammation, imaging studies will reveal certain deposits of bacteria – Fusarium or Cryptosporidium.
The organisms responsible for causing this condition include
- E. coli bacteria
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Variety of other strains of bacteria
Most patients with UTI will be given a course of antibiotics in order to get rid of the infection. In the vast majority of cases, these antibiotics are effective, although long-term prevention is possible through continual use of antibiotics.
However, for some patients, especially those with recurrent infections, hospitalisation may be required in order to obtain a cure. In patients who are given a course of antibiotics, the main problem they face is that due to their very nature, antibiotics can cause significant levels of side effects in most patients.
This is why it is not uncommon for patients to experience prolonged hospitalisation and pain that may last for up to a year or more, with a risk of further complications. A majority of acute pyelonephritis sufferers do well on analgesics and other forms of medication.
Acute pyelonephritis is caused by the autoimmune system attacking the lens of the eye
It is more common in younger children, but is not limited to them, and can affect adults as well. It generally begins with an inflammation of the internal tissues near the back of the eye but can spread to other areas if left untreated.
The disease is classified as acute, meaning that it began suddenly and is ongoing; and chronic, which means that it is a disease that has a gradual onset and does not clear up on its own. Risk factors for developing acute pyelonephritis include
- Long-term antibiotic use
- Family history of eye disease
- Diabetes mellitus
- Multiple medications
These factors can contribute to an increased risk of developing the condition, especially if there are existing underlying conditions. Patients who smoke cigarettes have a higher risk of developing the condition compared with those who don’t smoke.
Those who are overweight also face a greater risk of developing the condition
An increased risk factor is also present when it comes to treating UTI. For instance, antibiotics are commonly prescribed to ease the symptoms of UTI in order to reduce the chances of bacteria being retained in the urinary tract.
However, antibiotics are only useful in getting rid of existing bacteria in the urinary tract and not preventing the formation of new bacteria. Antibiotics have also been shown to cause changes in bacteria composition which results in a more susceptible immune system in favour of bacteria, which is already present in the urinary tract.
Chronic pyelonephritis is usually accompanied by various symptoms such as fever, lifting of legs, urine leaking from the anus and painful urination. It is therefore important to confirm the presence of these symptoms and the exact cause of the illness in order to commence the effective treatment.
The symptoms of chronic pyelonephritis tend to worsen over time and may become difficult to diagnose due to the fact that they mimic those of other conditions, especially in elderly individuals.
Acute sepsis is characterized by an acute onset of fever with a high intensity
Severe cases can cause death within a few hours if not properly treated. Patients in septic shock are at high risk for infections and other complications so care should be taken in assessing and treating this condition. The first step in septic tank maintenance is determining the level of acidosis.
Patients with acute pyelonephritic sepsis have a high percentage of developing kidney failure, as reflected by increased serum creatinine levels. The degree of kidney failure, however, can vary widely based on the severity of symptoms and the patient’s health.
Patients with severe sepsis and acute pyelonephritis kidney disease have very poor outcomes, with a median survival time of about two weeks; even survival at five months is considered very low. Patients with milder forms of this kidney disease often survive for years.
As with most causes of kidney failure, patients suffering from acute pyelonephy are at high risk for certain types of kidney infections. Patients with uncomplicated cases of acute pyelonephy should be tested for
- Hepatitis B and C viruses
- Probably a bladder infection
In addition, blood cultures and urine tests can be used to detect any infections that might be occurring. Urinary tract infections can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. People with pyelonephritis often have low albumin levels, which indicate the presence of bacteria.
When there is a problem with the immune system the bacteria can multiply quickly and the result is an infection of very sensitive tissues such as the urinary bladder or urethra. The infection is very painful and itchy.
The symptoms of this condition include, but are not limited to
- Severe pain in the area where urine is stored
- Burning sensation during urination
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- White or yellow discharge from the vagina or urethra,
- Pain while urinating
- Possibility of a blood clot forming near the urethra
Sexual intercourse with an infected partner may produce additional complications such as soreness and infection of nearby tissues. Urinary tract infections are frequent in women with pyelonephritis. Untreated infections can cause urine to be held in the bladder for extended periods of time causing painful urination and a high risk for bacterial infection.
If cysts are present, they will likely burst and become infectious. Pregnant women are encouraged not to have sexual intercourse until they have had a confirmation from a doctor. This is to ensure that no additional complications will occur with pregnancy.
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